Brooklyn, NY's Life of Agony formed in 1989. Singer Keith Caputo, guitarist Joey Z., and bassist Alan Robert played the New York underground scene with several different drummers. They perfected their angst-filled hardcore/heavy metal hybrid along the way, obtaining a devoted audience in the process. On the eve of signing with Roadrunner Records, the band enlisted former Type O Negative drummer Sal Abruscato as a permanent member. The resulting album, River Runs Red, was similar to their stage show at the time -- straight-up energy and aggression in a hardcore/thrash format, with shards of heavy metal cutting through at times, and the group toured extensively upon its release.